Historical map of Guernsey’s flak batteries (©
Historical map of Guernsey’s Strongpoints and Resistance
Nests (© RC)
The planned invasion of the Channel Islands
codenamed Grune Pfeile (Green Arrow) had evolved during June
1940. The German High Command was unsure whether or not the
islands were defended. Various reconnaissance sorties were
flown over the Islands ending with a bombing raid on the harbour
facilities of both Guernsey and Jersey. Meeting little opposition
it was decided to proceed with the planned invasion. This
would involve Stuka dive bombers to soften up the coastal
defences followed by landing craft carrying troops armed with
light weapons to take the beaches. However before finalizing
any arrangements it was decided to send a second armed reconnaissance
flight to try and land. If no opposition was met, naval and
army units would be flown in.
On 30 June 1940 Hauptmann Liebe-Pieteritz, on a routine Luftwaffe
reconnaissance flight, anticipated this decision and decided
to test the Guernsey defences. Seeing that the airport appeared
deserted he landed and found it to be undefended. When news
of this reached Luftflotte 3 they concluded that the islands
were undefended and were awaiting invasion. A platoon of Luftwaffe
troops were flown into Guernsey on Junkers transport aircraft
The following day more transport aircraft brought naval assault
troops, a light anti-aircraft unit, and a company from Infantry
Regiment 396. By 2 July radio communications had been set
up with the mainland, and the construction of anti-aircraft
batteries was begun in Guernsey and Jersey on 4 July.
All the existing forts that were initially thought to be a
threat were found to be deserted and disused, and the Germans
quickly set about putting these to use. The remainder of the
early defences were nothing more than earthworks and lightweight
Early in 1941 Hitler turned his attention to fortifying the
Channel Islands. He feared that once Operation ‘Barbarossa’
(the invasion of Russia, beginning on 22 June) was underway,
the British may well attempt to recapture the Channel Islands.
Around this time the Germans began to employ local labour
for the construction of its fortifications.
In March 1941 the order went out to strengthen the defences
on the Islands and more troops, together with several Navy
and Army construction battalions, began to arrive. Reinforced
field order fortifications started to appear around the coast.
This work was not yet being undertaken by the O.T., but by
the Army and Navy construction units. These were mainly units
of company strength taken from Construction Battalions, Bridge
Construction Battalions, Fortress Construction Battalions,
and Railway Construction Battalions (despite the fact that
no railways were being constructed). These units arrived in
March 1941 and stayed for 3-6 months, after which the O.T.
began to arrive.
A report dated April 1941 stated that on Guernsey one 22cm
battery (Strassburg) was in the process of construction, and
would be combat ready by the beginning of May.
Work on the early reinforced field order defences continued
while the various Festpistab units carried out their surveys.
These fortifications were designed to be incorporated into
the later defences.
A report dated June 1941 stated that the 22cm battery was
now combat ready in permanent positions with most ancillary
shelters complete while construction of the gun platforms
for a 15cm battery was in progress.
In July 1941 Army Coastal Batteries 462 and 463 - each with
four 15cm K18 guns, 464, 465, and 466 - each with three 21cm
Mrs 18 howitzers, and 471 and 472 - each with four 22cm K532(f)
guns were transferred to Guernsey. By the end of the month
Batteries 462-466 were combat ready, with the remaining crews
being left to wait for their guns to be reconditioned in Germany;
five anti-aircraft batteries were also combat ready.
In September 1941 Higher Command requested the installation
of one battery of 4 x 38cm guns and four batteries of 4 x
15cm SK C/28 guns.
By early 1941 Hitler had ordered that the defences of the
Channel Islands were to be further strengthened and asked
for a full survey to ascertain what was needed to make the
islands impregnable. The survey began on July 1941, when Festpistab
19 (Fortress Engineer Staff 19) with Abschnittgruppe I/19
and II/19 (Sector Groups) arrived in Guernsey. Overseeing
this operation was Generalmajor Rudolf Schmetzer, Inspekteur
der Landbefestigung bei Oberbefehlshaber West (Inspector of
Ground Fortifications at Supreme Commander-in-the-West)
Early in October 1941 Generalmajor Schmetzer submitted his
survey and, two days later following a high level conference
in Berlin, Hitler signed his Directive and approved plans
to turn the Channel Islands into “Impregnable Fortresses”.
It was only after this meeting that the short-term programme
(to be completed in 14 months) got underway.
The various strong points around the coastline were first
constructed by the troops and later by military construction
units. The existing forts were already sited in good strategic
positions and these were adapted by the addition of extra
defences. Strong points consisted mainly of casemated coastal
guns, personnel shelters, searchlight bunkers and anti-tank
guns enfilading the beaches.
Approval was given for the installation of a 30.5cm battery
(Mirus) in place of a proposed 38cm battery and the replacement
of the 22cm guns of Batterie Strassburg with 15cm SK C/28
guns. Whilst the 30.5cm battery was constructed, the replacement
of the Strassburg guns would never materialise.
As early as July 1941 it was apparent that the Fortress Engineers
alone would not be able to cope with the scale of the works,
and the O.T. should be called in to assist. By November 1941,
Dr Fritz Todt had visited the three islands where he issued
Construction Orders identifying the following areas of responsibility:
1. Individual troops - field fortifications (trenches, foxholes
etc.); 2. Divisional Engineers - distribution of land mines
and flame throwers; 3. Army Construction Battalions - reinforced
field order defences; 4. Fortress Engineers/Construction Battalions
- supplying and installing fortress weapons, some tunnelling,
transport of heavy loads, compiling construction progress
reports and maps, ordering and supervising O.T. tasks; 5.
Organisation Todt - quarrying, construction of roads, power
stations, most tunnelling, supervising civilian building firms,
sea transport, controlling non-military labour and building
fortress standard defences.
By early November 1941 considerable amounts of stores and
personnel had begun to arrive, and the fortification programme
was soon to be underway.
On 15 December 1941 Hitler issued the order for the construction
of the Atlantic Wall. To oversee this, Generalmajor Schmetzer
left the Channel Islands and was replaced by Festungspionierkommadeur
XIV under Oberst von Marnitz. Elizabeth College was chosen
as headquarters, shared with Festpistab 19 which had been
there since the previous July. Subordinate units included
- Abschnitt Gr.I/19, Abschnitt Gr.II/19, Festungsbaubtl.19,
as well as Rock-Drilling, Mining and Compressor Companies.